- Kazakhstan adopted a new feed-in tariff in July 2014. The EBRD has worked with the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies and the Ministry of Environmental Protection to help develop various aspects of the new legislation. The tariff is set at 34,61 tenge/kWh (approx. 14 eurocents), and will be fully indexed/adjusted for inflation annually. The term of the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) is 15 years. With the new tarriff in place, PrimeSolar is developing a 100 MW project at Jambyl Province. Construction is scheduled to begin in April of 2015.
- CHS Inc has announced that Mark Palmquist, executive vice president and chief operating officer, Ag Business, will leave the organization effective Aug. 31, 2014, to assume the top leadership role with an Australian grain company. Current CHS strategic leadership team member Shirley Cunningham will assume a new role as executive vice president and chief operating officer, Ag Business and Enterprise Strategy. Palmquist will become managing director and chief executive officer of GrainCorp, Sydney, Australia, on Oct. 1, 2014.
- While plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are now available in all U.S. states, most Canadian provinces and territories, and in every Western European country, they are not readily accessible in the Asia Pacific region. That will change over the next several years as Asia Pacific becomes the largest market for PEV sales. According to a recent report, “Electric Vehicle Geographic Forecasts,” from Navigant Research, sales of PEVs in North America, Western Europe, and Asia Pacific will grow from 352,000 annually in 2014 to 1.8 million in 2023.
- STR Holdings, Inc. has announced its entry into a strategic relationship with Zhenfa Energy Group Co., Ltd., a leading developer of solar PV power stations based in Chongqing, China. The contemplated transactions with Zhenfa, which are subject to approval by STR stockholders and satisfaction of other customary closing conditions, include the sale of shares of common stock representing a 51% interest in STR (based on current shares outstanding) for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $21.7 million, the payment by the Company of a special dividend in the aggregate amount of approximately $22.6 million to STR stockholders of record after the closing date (excluding Zhenfa), and the execution of a Sales Service Agreement pursuant to which Zhenfa will, among other things, help drive sales of STR encapsulant to China-based solar module manufacturers.
Crowdfunding is coming to biofuels. On August 3, 2014, Bio Revolution America launched a 45 day Indiegogo crowdfunding campaign to fund its biofuels projects in Appalachia and within one week is reporting reaching 30 percent of their goal. The company has developed a Bio extractor machine that has they believe has the potential to change the face of biofuel manufacturing. The extractors are made in America, have six years of field testing and are patent pending.
According to Bio Revolution America, the machine extracts 100 percent carbon neutral bio oil and byproducts from plants using a cold oil extraction process. Cold oil extraction uses no chemicals or solvents and leaves everything in its natural, organic state. The bio-oil can then be used in foods, as biodiesel and the pressed meal can be used for cosmetics, medicine and more.
“There has probably never been a time in the history of America when something this important could happen,” said Bio Revolution America spokesperson Randall Richards. “Everyone wins! We help create jobs and income in the poorest parts of the U.S., We help save the environment, and become the world’s leader in pure, green, bio technology on a large scale!”
Upon reaching their Indiegogo funding goal they plan to help farmers in Appalachia plant seeds this fall so that the plants can be harvested in the spring 2015. The initial outreach is taking place in Appalachia, but will expand from there to the Midwest and Western U.S. in the next year.
Cape Town, South Africa is the home of JinkoSolar Holding Co.’s news solar module factory. Located at 2 Evans Avenue, Epping Industrial 1, Cape Town, the factory covers an area of 5,000 square meters and has an annual production capacity of 120MW.
The company invested nearly U.S. $7.5 million in the factory that is expected to create 250 jobs. Modeled after its state-of-the-art Chinese production facilities in China, the Cape Town factory will employ measures to ensure the highest quality PV module production process.
“We are proud to be the first foreign solar manufacturer to have built production facilities in South Africa,” said Mr. Kangping Chen, JinkoSolar’s Chief Executive Officer. “Since winning our first South African tender in 2012, JinkoSolar has become the market leader having sold over 300MW to date. The completion of this factory highlights JinkoSolar’s strong capital base and ability to diversify its global manufacturing facilities geographically.”
“The factory will also enhance JinkoSolar’s global production chain allowing it to serve customers across the region with local content,” added Chen. “We are committed to providing the highest quality products and services to our customers around the world as we work to increase shareholder value over the long-term.”
- The quality of Wuxi Suntech’s polycrystalline silicon modules rank above industry standards according to OST Energy’s independent technical review of the company. OST Energy also provided independent validation that Wuxi Suntech’s production facilities are in line with international (IFC and World Bank) lender requirements for a primary supply chain. This review is the latest in third-party verification of the quality of Suntech products. Most recently, Suntech products received the VDE Quality-Tested certification, attesting that Suntech modules exceed existing industry standards. Suntech is only the third brand globally to receive this ranking.
- Hanergy Holding Group and China New Energy Chamber of Commerce have issued the Global Renewable Energy Report 2014. The report found thatChina became the world’s biggest market for solar power in 2013, with the country’s newly installed photovoltaic generating capacity jumping 232% on-year to 12 gigawatts (GW).
- Maryland-based Competitive Power Ventures (CPV) and partners Marubeni and Toyota Tsusho announced today they have closed financing with GE unit (NYSE: GE) GE Energy Financial Services and 14 other lenders for the $775 million CPV St. Charles Energy Center under construction in Waldorf, Charles County, Maryland. Financial details were not disclosed. Located 25 miles southeast of Washington, DC, the CPV St. Charles Energy Center is a state-of-the-art 725-megawatt (MW) combined-cycle natural gas-fired power plant using two reliable, highly efficient GE 7F.05 Gas Turbines and a GE D400 Steam Turbine. The project will be constructed by SNC Lavalin Constructors Inc. and operated by EthosEnergy Power Plant Services, LLC.
- Solar power costs have fallen dramatically over the last five years, thanks to lower module prices, lower balance of system costs, and increased competition at the development and EPC level. Financing costs have also decreased as investors recognize the low-risk profile of solar assets. As a result, solar power is now cheaper than most alternative power sources according to Thierry Lepercq, founder and president of France-based Solairedirect. Within this price range, Saudi Arabia could offer some of the lowest LCOE levels. Lepercq will be speaking at the second edition of Desert Solar Saudi Arabia conference that will be held from September 17-18, 2014.
Volkswagen of America, Inc. is continuing to roll out plans for its holistic approach to e-mobility. Beginning with the launch of the zero-tailpipe emissions 2015 e-Golf model later this year, Volkswagen will invest in carbon reduction projects to offset emissions created from e-Golf production, distribution and up to approximately 36,000 miles of driving. Volkswagen also named SunPower as the official solar energy partner power provider. Volkswagen believes they will be one of the first high-volume manufacturers to deliver a truly holistic approach to ultra-low-carbon mobility.
To help determine its carbon offset projects, Volkswagen has teamed with 3Degrees, a renewable energy and carbon offset services provider. By investing in carbon reduction programs, Volkswagen said they will offset the e-Golf’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that result from its production, distribution and from the estimated emissions produced from keeping the vehicle charged through the initial 36,000 miles of the vehicle’s life. Volkswagen of America chose to include carbon reduction efforts in California and in Texas with projects geared towards forestry conservation and landfill gas capture.
“Volkswagen feels it is important to look beyond the benefits of driving a vehicle without tailpipe emissions and to take a holistic approach to e-mobility,” said Oliver Schmidt, general manager, Environment and Engineering Office, Volkswagen Group of America. “We now have the ability to offer offsets that approximate the emissions created from production, distribution and the initial 36,000 miles of use.”
Volkswagen-supported projects included the Garcia River Conservation-Based Forest Management Project, located in Mendocino County, Calif., to protects and preserves a 24,000-acre native redwood forest, increasing carbon sequestration and storage, while also helping to restore the natural wildlife habitat. The company is also supporting the Big River and Salmon Creek Forests, located in Mendocino County, California, and the McKinney Landfill project, based at a closed landfill in McKinney, Texas.
“Volkswagen is showing leadership by including carbon offsets standard with this e-Golf electric vehicle,” added Steve McDougal, President of 3Degrees. “As more people choose low and no emission cars, Volkswagen is making it possible – and easy – to think comprehensively about the greenhouse gas emissions profile of a vehicle.”
Cathay Pacific Airways is the first airline investor in Fulcrum BioEnergy, Inc. The investments was made as part of the airline’s biofuel strategy and to help it achieve a target of carbon-neutral growth from 2020. Fulcrum is focused on the development and commercialization of converting municipal solid waste into sustainable aviation fuel or “biojet fuel”. Cathay Pacific also has an option for further investment.
“We are very pleased to become the first airline investor in this sustainable biofuel developer. We are well aware of the impact the aviation industry has on the environment and have been doing a great deal to minimize our own impact,” said Cathay Pacific Chief Executive Ivan Chu. “We are pleased to have identified Fulcrum as a strategic business partner that has the necessary vision and technological know-how to help Cathay Pacific pursue the use of biojet fuels. These fuels are an important component of our sustainable development strategy, under which we aim to achieve carbon-neutral growth from 2020.”
Cathay Pacific has also negotiated a long-term supply agreement with Fulcrum for an initial 375 million U.S. gallons of sustainable aviation fuel over 10 years (representing on an annual basis approximately 2% of the airline’s current fuel consumption) that meets all the airline’s technical requirements and specifications. Fulcrum plans to commence construction of its first commercial plant later this year and to build large scale, waste-to-renewable jet fuel plants at multiple locations, including locations strategic to the Cathay Pacific network, primarily in North America.
Cathay Pacific Biofuel Manager Jeff Ovens said of their technology, “Fulcrum has successfully demonstrated a process of converting municipal solid waste feedstock into sustainable aviation fuel at its scale demonstration facility. The feedstock will be pre-sorted to remove any recyclables prior to being processed into fuels. The company has proved that its technology is viable and has supply commitments in place for feedstock needed for the fuel production. These supply commitments will cover both near-term and future developments.”
According to Jim Macias, CEO of Fulcrum BioEnergy, jet fuel produced by Fulcrum’s waste-to-fuels process will reduce lifecycle carbon emissions when used in aircraft or road transport by more than 80 percent when compared to traditional fuels derived from crude oil and other fossil sources. This process also reduces the amount of municipal solid waste going into landfill sites and the methane gas emissions that result from this. If not captured, methane gas is 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide as a global warming contributor.
“We value our strategic relationship with Cathay Pacific, one of the world’s premier airlines. Cathay Pacific shares our vision and plan to bring a whole new source of sustainable fuel to the airline industry,” added Macias. “A new fuel that has the exact same molecules as fossil fuel but is cleaner, lower in carbon, renewable and lower cost than traditional fossil fuels. Cathay Pacific is really stepping up to help accelerate deliveries of this fuel to the market. This relationship adds to Fulcrum’s existing feedstock, technology and fuel off-take partners that enhance Fulcrum’s low-cost business model for the production and sale of large volumes of low-carbon, jet fuel.”
- ScottMadden, Inc. has joined forces with Energy Central to present an interactive webinar, “State of the Energy Industry: A Mid-Year Review,” on Friday, August 22, 2014, from 12:00–1:00 PM EDT. This free webcast will be based on ScottMadden’s upcoming Energy Industry Update, a semi-annual publication featuring their view of recent significant events and emerging trends that is received by more than 10,000 industry leaders. During this 60-minute webcast, ScottMadden industry experts will share their views on renewables, fossil generation, and transmission and field questions.
- As students across Georgia return to the classroom this month, Georgia Power’s Learning Power program will go back to school as well. Learning Power is a statewide education initiative focused on science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) subjects. The initiative is designed to bring energy education to the classrooms for students at no cost to schools. Through the program, education coordinators visit Georgia schools to present special hands-on STEM-related lessons highlighting energy basics such as simple circuits and energy efficiency, plus activities that help students understand how energy is made and distributed from generation facilities to their homes.
- FirstEnergy Corp. is offering education grants for creative classroom projects planned for the 2014-2015 school year. Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Classroom Grants of up to $500 will be awarded for teacher professional-development initiatives and creative, individual classroom projects for grades prekindergarten through 12. The grants are available to educators and youth group leaders located in communities served by FirstEnergy’s 10 electric operating companies, and in communities where the company has facilities or does business. STEM grant applications must be submitted by September 19, 2014. Grants will be awarded based on the recommendations of the FirstEnergy Education Advisory Council. Winners will be notified by October 13, 2014.
- Sunnova Energy Corporation has today it has secured an additional $110 million in financing specifically allocated to support the growth of its solar service offering to homeowners and promote strategic market expansion. The $110 million joins the previously announced $145 million to facilitate an increase in new customers.
The Wisconsin Bio Industry Alliance (WBIA) is hosting a free webinar on Google Hangouts August 12, 2014 at 2:00 pm EST to discuss the results of their ethanol poll. Recently, the WCGA released a poll showing Wisconsin citizens favor the use of ethanol in fuel by a 2 to 1 margin. Sixty percent of individuals support blending ethanol into gasoline versus only 32 percent who oppose.
“Less than one third (32%) of participants were unsupportive of ethanol blends in their fuel,” said Joshua Morby, executive director of the Wisconsin Bio Industry Alliance. “Clearly the public understands what Big Oil is doing their best to cover up and ignore: Ethanol is cleaner-burning, efficient, and homegrown right here in Wisconsin.”
The webinar will include a detailed analysis of the responses from WBIA and WCGA representatives. The webinar will be available as a live YouTube stream through Google Hangouts. Viewers can post comments and ask questions before, during, and after the webinar.
Audi of America has announced the launch of a new program: Audi energy. The program is designed to improve the electric vehicle ownership experience as well as reduce the carbon footprint that comes with vehicle production, distribution and driving. Ultimately, the program will produce a new plug in hybrid vehicle – the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron – estimated to be available in the U.S. in mid 2015.
The program has three elements associated with the A3 e-etron:
- At-home Audi-designed Level 2 charging developed with Bosch Automotive Service Solutions;
- Audi will purchase carbon offset certificates in California and Africa to offset GHG emissions; and
- Sunpower will provide optional home solar power system for Audi owners including a new home energy storage solution to capture additional solar energy.
“The Audi A3 Sportback e-tron will offer drivers an eco-conscious vehicle ownership experience,” said Wayne Killen, General Manager, Product Strategy and Launch. “Audi energy takes this to the next level with solutions that allow for sustainable fuel driving and a lower carbon footprint. We believe this will be one of the most comprehensive offering in the industry today.”
The Hawaii Department of Budget and Finance is now authorized to issue special purpose revenue bonds not exceeding $50,000,000 for the purpose of planning, permitting, designing, construction, equipping, and operating BioTork Hawaii LLC’s commercial facilities. Recently, the state passed legislation to assist in funding a zero waste project that converts crops, crop residues, dedicated energy crops and ag waste into sustainable biofuels and co-products.
According to BioTork, their bioconversion development efforts in Hawaii date back to 2010 when it began research of its technology. The company uses a “proprietary evolutionary optimization approach,” and “enhances the performance of non-GMO microorganisms under real-world industrial conditions in an unrivaled cost efficient way”. The conversion process takes a few days to cycle in a heterotrophic environment, meaning no sunlight is needed, to create oil for biofuel and high-protein feed.
“The passage of this legislation greatly enhances BioTork’s efforts in Hawaii. It demonstrates the attractiveness and the potential of our technology, which is focused on the bioconversion of agricultural waste, into a higher value product,” said Eudes de Crecy, CEO of BioTork.
Basing its efforts on the requirements of the “Hawaii Zero Waste Program,” BioTork entered into collaboration with the Daniel K. Inouye Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center. Since that time Hawaii committed $4,800,000 in research, development and capital improvement funding through a contract with DKI-PBARC to focus on BioTork’s evolution technology. Some of these funds have been committed through the state’s barrel tax allocations, which target energy and food security initiatives. Other funds have been appropriated through legislative capital improvement program allocations.
“At BioTork we firmly believe that in many circumstances there is much more value in converting carbon rich organic biomass into high value products, than just burning it, burying it or using it as fertilizer in the field. The model we pursue is to breed the good microbe candidates to specifically address the locally available biomass sources, using natural methods and to create much more value to the local and global economy,” added Tom Lyons, CSO of BioTork.
With the additional support of special purpose revenue bond funding, BioTork Hawaii LLC will be able to fuel the third step of its development program. This would involve scaling up to build and operate commercial facilities that will have the capacity to convert agricultural crops and by-products such as albizia, sweet potatoes, papaya, sugarcane bagasse, glycerol and molasses to biofuels and high-protein feed.
- The 6th Annual OPIS RFS2, RINs & Biodiesel Forum is being held October 16-17, 2014 in Chicago, Illinois. Sponsored by OPIS, the company notes those impacted by the RFS are frustrated with EPA’s recent announcement of extending the 2013 RFS deadline a third time — this only adds to the aggravation of the already late 2014 final targets. The event will teach attendees what they need to know to stay in compliance and avoid fines of up to $37,500 per day per violation from our top experts. Other topics include comprehending the complexities of EPA’s new QAP program, staying on top of the latest RVOs and creating a rock-solid compliance strategy.
- Bond Dickinson’s Planning & Infrastructure team has advised on two successful offshore wind farm consents this summer, the latest of which represents its sixth Development Consent Order. The firm advised E.ON Climate & Renewables on the development of the Rampion offshore wind farm off the Sussex coast together with the underground onshore cable route and a new substation near the existing substation at Bolney, Mid Sussex. The development was granted consent to go ahead on July 16, 2014 by Ed Davey, Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change. This follows the consent granted for East Anglia ONE in June, the first of Bond Dickinson’s successful offshore wind farm consents this summer.
- Lumos Solar, a Boulder, Colorado based design-centric solar product company, has announced that TD Bank has chosen Lumos LSX frameless solar modules to cover their retail drive-thru structures. These structures provide essential shade and protection from the elements for bank customers as well as producing clean, renewable energy, helping TD Bank meet their sustainability goals.
- ContourGlobal, an international power generation company, has announced that it has acquired an additional 122.6 MW of installed wind capacity in Brazil through a transaction with Casa dos Ventos. The transaction expands ContourGlobal’s operations in the attractive Chapada do Piaui wind complex located in Brazil’s windy northeast adding a new 59.2 MW fully contracted wind project (Chapada III) located adjacent to its existing Chapada I and Chapada II wind farms. Additionally, ContourGlobal has acquired Casa dos Ventos’s minority interest of 5% in Chapada II and will acquire its minority interest of 15% of Chapada I as well as its minority interest of 15% in the 160 MW Asa Branca wind farm that ContourGlobal placed into operation in September 2013.
Boeing, South African Airways (SAA) and SkyNRG are partnering together to develop aviation biofuel from a specific type of tobacco plant. SkyNRG is currently expanding its production of Solaris, an energy crop hybrid derived from the tobacco plant. Pilot farming of the plant, which is effectively nicotine-free, is underway in South Africa with to end goal of producing advanced biojet fuel from the seeds. As the program expands, Boeing expects emerging technologies to increase South Africa’s aviation biofuel production from the rest of the plant.
The project is an effort to expand the support of South Africa’s goals for improved public health along with economic and rural development.
“It’s an honor for Boeing to work with South African Airways on a pioneering project to make sustainable jet fuel from an energy-rich tobacco plant,” said J. Miguel Santos, managing director for Africa, Boeing International. “South Africa is leading efforts to commercialize a valuable new source of biofuel that can further reduce aviation’s environmental footprint and advance the region’s economy.”
In October 2013, Boeing and SAA agreed they would work together to develop a sustainable aviation biofuel supply chain in Southern Africa. As part of that effort, they are working with the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials to position farmers with small plots of land to grow biofuel feedstocks that provide socioeconomic value to communities without harming food supplies, fresh water or land use.
Ian Cruickshank, South African Airways Group Environmental Affairs Specialist said of the expanded project, “By using hybrid tobacco, we can leverage knowledge of tobacco growers in South Africa to grow a marketable biofuel crop without encouraging smoking. This is another way that SAA and Boeing are driving development of sustainable biofuel while enhancing our region’s economic opportunity.”
“We strongly believe in the potential of successfully rolling out Solaris in the Southern African region to power sustainable fuels that are also affordable,” added Maarten van Dijk, Chief Technology Officer, SkyNRG.
- Pattern Energy Group LP has acquired the Logan’s Gap wind project from Pioneer Green Energy. Logan’s Gap is a 200 megawatt (MW) wind project to be built in Comanche County, Texas. As the developer of the project, Pioneer Green Energy began work of a significant nature in 2013 and executed a 10-year power purchase agreement (PPA) with Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. for approximately 60% of the project’s expected production.
- Pacific Energy Solutions (PES), an energy project development company specializing in renewable technologies, has entered into a binding contract with the U.S. Navy to supply approximately 30,400 MWh of electricity annually to the Navy for use by Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force activities in the State of Hawaii. PES will supply this electricity to the Navy over a 25-year Power Purchase Agreement term. A groundbreaking ceremony was conducted on July 24, 2014 at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam. The ceremony was presided over by the Secretary of the Navy, the Honorable Ray Mabus, who was joined by the Governor of the State of Hawaii, Neil Abercrombie.
- Sparq, Inc. a company focused on municipal and utility scale renewable energy, is now offering it’s solar energy service to residential customers beginning August 1, 2014. Sparq’s new Residential Solar Service will make it possible for homeowners across the Southwest to save thousands on their utility bills. Sparq’s existing partnership in the utility market will be expanded with Lightway Green New Energy Co. to provide high-standard solar panels and equipment designed specifically for residential applications.
- From 2014 to 2035, worldwide gas consumption by the road transportation sector will fall 4 percent, the report concludes according to a new report, “Transportation Forecast: Global Fuel Consumption,” from Navigant Research. Gasoline consumption for road transportation will continue to rise through 2021, reaching 367.3 billion gallons a year, but then start to fall thereafter, declining to 348.1 billion gallons a year in 2035.
SG Preston (SGP) has announced the planned development of a 120 million gallon renewable diesel facility in Lawrence County, Ohio. The $400 million bioenergy facility will be the world’s largest producer of renewable diesel when finished in 2017 according to SGP.
The company said a key component of the facility’s development is the licensing of their advanced process technology that has been successfully proven at commercial scale at other locations. According to SGP, this advanced technology efficiently converts waste feedstock into renewable diesel – chemically identical to petroleum-based diesel- and can be used as a drop-in replacement in vehicles. In addition, SGP said this technology allows them to customize its biofuel offering by adjusting fuel characteristics to meet various operating environments (extreme cold or heat) of the end user without diluting energy content in the GHG reduced fuel blend.
“For SG Preston, this is an important milestone and part of a larger vision of partnering with leading, global refining technology partners and local communities to develop a portfolio of renewable diesel and renewable jet fuel refineries targeting 1.2 billion gallons per year, or 20% of the federal RFS2 biomass-based mandate for biofuels,” said R. Delbert LeTang, CEO of SG Preston. “We see a blue sky opportunity to deliver customized, renewable fuel to government, the petroleum industry and other private users throughout the United States and we look forward to partnering with the people of southern Ohio to build new industries and new economic opportunity.”
Other partners in the project include the Lawrence County Economic Development Council, which is investing 62 acres in land and other incentives. The Appalachian Partnership for Economic Growth and JobsOhio were also instrumental in securing the investment and technology to play a role in the future of southern Ohio.
Pre-engineering studies for the facility are expected to begin in September 2014, with commercial operations targeted for 2017.
Bill Dingus, executive director of Lawrence County Economic Development Council, added, “This project will be of significant economic importance to southern Ohio, bringing long-term employment and income to the region. We look forward to supporting the development of new energy technologies, and passing on the benefits of commerce and cleaner air to local residents.”
University of California, Riverside researchers have developed a versatile, virtually non-toxic and efficient way to convert raw ag and forest residues along with other plant matter into biofuels and biochemicals. Professor Charles E. Wyman is leading the research team and their patent-pending method coined Co-solvent Enhanced Lignocellulosic Fractionation (CELF) and they believe they are another step closer to solving the goal of producing biofuels and biochemicals from biomass and high enough yields and low enough costs to become viable.
“Real estate is about location, location, location,” said Wyman, the Ford Motor Company Chair in Environmental Engineering at UC Riverside’s Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT). “Successful commercialization of biofuels technology is about yield, yield, yield, and we obtained great yields with this novel technology.”
The key to the technology, according to Wyman, is using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a co-solvent to aid in the breakdown of raw biomass feedstocks to produce valuable primary and secondary fuel precursors at high yields at moderate temperatures. These fuel precursors can then be converted into ethanol, chemicals or drop-in fuels. Drop-in fuels have similar properties to conventional gasoline, jet, and diesel fuels and can be used without significant changes to vehicles or current transportation infrastructure.
Compared to other available biomass solvents, THF is well-suited for this application because it mixes homogenously with water, has a low boiling point (66 degrees Celsius) to allow for easy recovery, and can be regenerated as an end product of the process, explained Charles M. Cai, a Ph.D. student working with Wyman.
The research, focused on lignin, was recently published in Green Chemistry: “Coupling metal halides with a co-solvent to produce furfural and 5-HMF at high yields directly from lignocellulosic biomass as an integrated biofuels strategy.”