Gigawatt Global Grid Connects Solar Project

The Rwanda field, a $23.7 million, 8,5 MW solar energy plant has been connected to the power grid. Developed by Gigawatt Global, this is the first utility-scale project to reach financial close and come online under the Africa Clean Energy Finance (ACEF) program that is part of the Power Africa Initiative. The Rwanda field – constructed in the shape of the African continent – brought together an international consortium of financing partners.

Rwanda’s Minister of Infrastructure, Hon. James Musoni, and the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Government’s Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), John Morton, led a ribbon-cutting ceremony at the Agahozo-Shalom Youth Village (ASYV) near where the solar plant is located.

“Top quality developers like Gigawatt Global are the keys to success for President Obama’s Power Africa Initiative,” said Elizabeth Littlefield, president and CEO of OPIC. “After OPIC provided critical early-stage support through the ACEF program, Gigawatt smoothly and swiftly brought the project online to give Rwanda enough grid-connected power to supply 15,000 homes. Gigawatt Global in Rwanda is a clear demonstration that solar will be a key part of Africa’s energy solution.” The project was completed in one year.

Rwanda Gigawatt Project Drone  Gigawatt Project Rwanda DroneChaim Motzen, Gigawatt Global Co-Founder and Managing Director, and the main force behind the development of the project, noted, “Our project proves the viability of financing and building large-scale solar fields in sub-Saharan Africa, and we hope that this solar field serves as a catalyst for many more sustainable energy projects in the region. The speed with which this project was completed is a tribute to the strength of the Rwandan government’s institutions and their laser-focus on increasing Rwanda’s generation capacity as well as to the nimbleness of our team and partners which spanned eight countries.”

The Rwandan project is built on land owned by the Agahozo-Shalom Youth Village, whose mission is to care for Rwanda’s most vulnerable children orphaned before and after the Rwandan genocide. The Village is leasing land to house the solar facility, the fees from which will help pay for a portion of the Village’s charitable expenses. Gigawatt Global will also be providing training on solar power to students of the Liquidnet High School on the grounds of the Youth Village.

“This utility-scale solar field at the Agahozo-Shalom Youth Village is a symbol of hope for sub-Saharan Africa’s tens of millions of orphans and 600 million people without power, ushering in a new era of impact investing that we will hopefully be replicating throughout Africa,” added Yosef Abramowitz, president of Gigawatt Global. “We want to thank President Obama and Secretary Kerry, along with our other financial partners, for the opportunity to celebrate this landmark electricity-generating project under Power Africa.”

Green Charge Networks & Flextronics Partner

GreenStationGreen Charge Networks has partnered with Flextronics to provide “on-demand” manufacturing of Green Charge’s GreenStation intelligent energy storage system at its customer innovation center in Milpitas, California.  The company says California’s investor-owned utilities are seeking to deploy energy storage solutions at an accelerated rate. This includes energy storage capacity installed “behind the meter” on-site at commercial and industrial companies, a mid-tier market sector that Green Charge is pioneering with its GreenStation intelligent energy storage solution.

“Flextronics is proud to be Green Charge’s manufacturing partner, helping them to better meet the demands of their growing customer base,” said Scott Graybeal, vice president, energy at Flextronics. “Energy storage technology is rapidly evolving and we are thrilled to help companies like Green Charge with our advanced innovative solutions and platform offerings that increase their competitiveness and decrease their time to market.”

Vic Shao, CEO and Founder at Green Charge Networks added, “Green Charge has developed a leading-edge intelligent energy storage solution that not only benefits our customers, but helps pave the way towards a sustainable electric grid infrastructure of the future. Partnering with Flextronics, we’re thrilled to contribute to the revitalization of manufacturing in the U.S.”

NRDC Launches Airline Scorecard

The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) has launched a first-of-its-kind scorecard that rates airlines’ use of integrating sustainable biofuels into their fleets. Air travel emits more than 650 million metric tons of carbon pollution each year – nearly the amount emitted of 136 million cars. The leader of the pack is Air France/KLM.

“It’s great to see certain airlines becoming leaders in the use of sustainable biofuels,” said Debbie Hammel, senior resource specialist with NRDC’s Land & Wildlife Program and author of the scorNRDC Aviation Sustainable Biofuel Scorecardecard. “As the world rises to the challenge of curbing climate change and cutting carbon pollution, addressing air travel pollution has to be part of the mix. The aviation sector has been pretty proactive about this issue, and an industry-wide increase in the use of sustainably produced biofuels is definitely on the horizon.”

NRDC’s Aviation Biofuel Sustainability Scorecards evaluated airlines’ adoption of biofuels, focusing on the use of leading sustainability certification standards, participation in industry initiatives to promote sustainability certification, public commitments to sustainability certification in sourcing, and the monitoring and disclosure of important sustainability metrics. The leading sustainable carrier is Air France-KLM, followed by British Airways, United Airlines, Virgin Atlantic, Cathay Pacific and Alaska Airlines.

NRDC has found that the airline industry has made great strides in recent years. During the past five years, 40 commercial airlines around the world have flown nearly 600,000 miles powered by biofuels. Low-carbon fuels will play a key role in the industry’s efforts to hold its carbon emissions steady after 2020 and cut net carbon emissions to half of the 2005 level by 2050 according to NRDC. To meet these goals, a new market has emerged to provide biofuels for the aviation sector. But, said NRDC, the adoption of credible, third-party sustainability certification systems are necessary to ensure that the emerging aviation biofuels market is providing fuels that are sourced sustainably.

The scorecard and issue brief encourages airlines to send clear market signals notifying suppliers of the importance of sustainability certification – ideally using the certification framework created by the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) – and make a public commitment to source 100 percent certified-sustainable biofuels.

“How airlines move forward is still up in the air,” Hammel added. “While some in the industry have made real progress in implementing sustainability commitments this past year, there’s more to do. The industry must commit to robust standards for sourcing these fuels to ensure that they’re truly sustainable in the long-term.”

BioEnergy Bytes

  • http://domesticfuel.com/category/bioenergy-bytes/The Will Steger Foundation is launching Climate Minnesota: Local Stories, Community Solutions to communicate about climate change through local science, stories, and solutions that encompass the broad range of impacts that Minnesotans are seeing now. Join them for a local convening and share your own climate stories.
  • Pattern Energy Group Inc. has announced the pricing of an underwritten public offering of US$351.00 million, or 12,000,000 shares, of its Class A common stock at a public offering price of US$29.25 per share. The Company is selling US$204.75 million, or 7,000,000 shares, of Class A common stock and the selling shareholder, Pattern Energy Group LP, is selling US$146.25 million, or 5,000,000 shares, of Class A common stock. The underwriters of the offering have a 30-day option, exercisable until March 5, 2015, to purchase up to an additional US$52.65 million, or 1,800,000 shares, of Class A common stock from the Selling Shareholder. The offering is scheduled to close on February 9, 2015, subject to customary closing conditions.
  • Atlantic Wind & Solar, Inc. has connected its newest utility scale solar plant in Ontario Canada to the grid. The solar power plant was developed by its Canadian subsidiary Atlantic Solar Inc. The photovoltaic plant consists of a 111.585 KW AC/ 132.345 KW DC fixed array of 255W poly-crystalline modules. The power will be sold to the Ontario Power Authority for 20 years at a rate of 71.3 ¢/kWh.
  • Dominion Voltage, Inc. (DVI), a grid optimization subsidiary of Dominion Resources, Inc. has announced their participation in an innovative Volt/VAR optimization pilot program at Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). The pilot project will enable the utility to evaluate the benefits of optimizing their distribution system voltage for the purposes of energy efficiency, Volt/VAR optimization, and voltage stabilization. DVI’s EDGE Volt/VAR optimization solution leverages Silver Spring’s AMI network and UtilityIQ Power Monitor to optimize voltage as part of PG&E’s Smart Grid Deployment Plan. The technology doesn’t require any behavioral changes or purchases by utility customers, which is common among more traditional forms of energy efficiency.

Harworth Opens Wind Turbine Project

UK-based Harworth Estates has completed the installation of a 500 kW wind turbine located at the former Arkwright surface mine, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire. The project was completed in partnership with Energy Prospects Co-operative. The site forms part of the former Arkwright open cast mining operation, which has been reclaimed and restored to agricultural land. Energy Prospects Co-operative raised money to fund the development of the turbine through a public share offer, giving priority to those who live locally.

Harworth Estates' installation of a 500KW wind turbine at the former Arkwright surface mine, close to the village of Duckmanton. The site forms part of the former Arkwright open cast mining operation, which has been reclaimed and restored to agricultural land.

Harworth Estates’ installation of a 500KW wind turbine at the former Arkwright surface mine, close to the village of Duckmanton. The site forms part of the former Arkwright open cast mining operation, which has been reclaimed and restored to agricultural land. Photo: Harworth Estates

According to Harworth Estates, the operating wind turbine generates sufficient energy to power around 1,000 local homes. Energy is fed into the National Grid, utilizing the grid connection adjacent to the turbine site.

Harworth is also working with Energy Prospects Co-operative to develop a second 500 kW turbine at the former Shafton Two Gates colliery site in Barnsley, South Yorkshire. Work have already begun and the turbine is expected to be operating by summer of 2015. Harworth Estates and Energy Prospects Co-operative are also currently working on planning applications for two further single turbine projects. One is near Edlington, Doncaster, and another near Selby, North Yorkshire.

Hannah Moxon, assistant management surveyor, of Harworth Estates’ Natural Resources division, said, “These two projects demonstrate our expertise at transforming previously-developed land to support low-carbon energy projects. Funding through the share offer created a lot of local interest and support for the project. These wind turbines are an important part of Harworth’s commitment to the community and the environment. We also look forward to continuing to work with Energy Prospects on single turbine schemes on our other sites.”

Pioneering Solar-Powered H2O Desalination Plant

misc logosAbengoa has been selected by Advanced Water Technology (AWT) to jointly develop a large-scale desalination plant powered by solar energy. The plant will be located in Saudi Arabia and the according to AWT, when complete will the first and largest of its kind in the world. It will produce 60,000 m3 of water each day to supply Al Khafji City in North Eastern Saudi Arabia, ensuring a constant water supply throughout the year.

According to Abengoa, the photovoltaic plant will be capable of supplying the power required by the desalination process, significantly reducing the operational costs. It will also have a system to optimize power consumption and a pre-treatment phase to reduce the high level of salinity and the oils and fats that are present in the region’s seawater.

The Al Khafji desalination plant will ensure the stable supply of drinking water, contributing to the country’s socio-economic development. As in other cities in Saudi Arabia, water is a scarce resource. Abengoa and AWT will supply the local population with water needs in a sustainable and reliable way.

Solar Changing Hawaii’s Electric Future

Hawaii has been getting a lot of attention recently for its efforts to reduce its use of fossil fuel-based energy. The state has the highest electricity costs in the U.S. Most recently, NextEra Energy announced its intent to acquire Hawaiian Electric Industries who owns three electric utilities that supply power to 95 percent of the state’s population. NextEra Energy Resources is one of the largest developers of renewable energy in the U.S. and intends on continuing the trend of adding solar power to its portfolio.

According to a recent “Today in Energy” published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), high electricity prices in Hawaii have made wind and solar technologies economically attractive alternatives – even more so as prices have come down in recent years. This has led to a growing use of wind and solar energy at both utiity scale and in distributed applications such as rooftop solar PV.

EIA’s monthly net metering utility data finds 9,200 net-metered PV systems were added in 2014 through October, bringing the total number of customers with net-metered PV to around 48,000. In Oahu, where most of the state’s population resides, the Solar Electric Power Association finds that roughly 12 percent of customers have rooftop solar compared to only .5 percent average throughout the rest of the U.S. The average capacity of residential net-metered PV systems in Hawaii has also been increasing as larger and more efficient PV systems are installed.

Renewable Watch Oahu - EIA Today in Energy

However, the state has seen delays in adding additional solar to the power grid. EIA attributes the delays to circuits on the Hawaiian Electric distribution grids reaching levels of rooftop PV capacity that are 120 percent or more of the circuit’s daytime minimum load—a key threshold for Hawaiian Electric’s interconnection approval process. Once that threshold is passed, an interconnection study may be required before the new PV system can be approved, which has resulted in a backlog of PV applications.

EIA notes that Hawaiian Electric recently entered a cooperative research partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the Electric Power Research Institute, and SolarCity  to study the operational effects of high levels of solar PV on electric grids.Preliminary research results have lead Hawaiian Electric to announce plans to clear its backlog of PV applications by April 2015. Continue reading

BioEnergy Bytes

  • http://domesticfuel.com/category/bioenergy-bytes/Alstom and Andrade Gutierrez have inaugurated an industrial joint venture dedicated to the production of steel towers for wind turbines, Torres Eólicas do Nordeste (TEN). The unit is located in Jacobina, Bahia, 350 km from Salvador.  The joint venture, 51% owned by Andrade Gutierrez and 49% by Alstom, received investment of around 30 million euros last year. The plant occupies a built-up area of 22,000 sq. meters on a 140,000 sq. meters plot, next to the main current and potential wind projects of the region.
  • The Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) is hosting a GRC Workshop, June 22-26, 2015. The event will include a field trip of the major geologic features of Yellowstone Park, the first national park in the world and the site of the greatest concentration of geothermal features on the planet, and discussions of its volcanic history, geochemistry, and hydrology. In addition, attendees will visit the 13 MW net capacity U.S. Geothermal Inc. Raft River geothermal power plant and the Raft River Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) site, where reservoir stimulation activities are being conducted.
  • Solar Power, Inc. has announced the completion of its $70 million private placement, previously announced on December 15, 2014. The private placement consisted of $35 million of common stock sold at a purchase price of $2.00 per share and $35 million of convertible promissory notes. Net proceeds from the sale of the common stock and convertible promissory notes are intended to be used for expansion of SPI’s global PV project activities, the development of its energy internet businesses and general corporate purposes.
  • Geronimo Energy is teaming up with St. Paul Public Housing (“SPPHA”) to bring solar to their residents under Xcel Energy’s Community Solar Garden Program. Geronimo Energy’s project was selected from a group of competitive proposals received by SPPHA. The project will help offset roughly 90% of SPPHA’s electricity usage at 16 high-rise buildings, comprised of 2554 housing units, as well as the main office facility in Saint Paul. Over the life of the contract with Geronimo, SPPHA will support the generation of 864,354,001 kWh of solar electricity and save over $4,000,000 in electricity expenses.

Book Review: Fractured Land

When is the last time you filled up your tank with a gallon of gas that was less than $2? For me, today. As oil prices have plummeted with gas prices falling suit, many people are attributing all the extra oil to fracking. But what is the cost, financially and environmentally speaking, of oil drilled in this manner?

Fractured Land by Lisa Westberg PetersA new book by Lisa Westberg Peters, Fractured Land: The Price of Inheriting Oil,” takes a look at these very issues. Interestingly, Peter is a self-proclaimed environmentalist who inherited land in North Dakota that is part of the state’s “fracking” oil boom. She acknowledges her discomfort with fracking technology, but attempted to keep an open mind during her educational journey to learn more.

When Peters father passes away and she is going through his things, she comes across all the documents related to his oil/fracking royalties that she will eventual inherit. The book follows her as she learns more about her family’s oil history, her research about fracking, which she is theoretically opposed to, and the family’s trip to North Dakota, where they have oil contracts, and spread her father’s ashes. The prose flows nicely as she weaves in and out between her family history and the information she learns about fracking.

From an energy perspective, despite being from the Midwest and current residing in Minnesota, she is opposed to the use of biofuels. She writes, “We don’t have petrochemicals in Minnesota, so we grow corn for ethanol. Homegrown alternative energy! I should be enthused about ethanol, but the production plants are water and energy hogs.”

Peters does address the chemicals and water used in fracking, albeit briefly and I feel she could have done a better job of addressing her environmental concerns over some of the issues brought on by fracking (potential for contaminated water, excessive water use that is much worse than other forms of alternative energy, mining of the frac sand, etc.).

Ultimately she chooses to keep her mineral rights when they come to her but she decides to donate a portion of them back to North Dakota to aid those who are struggling with high rents or the natural areas threatened by oil development. She concludes that while she will benefit financially from oil drilling, it brings her little joy.

Click here to purchase the book.

BioEnergy Bytes

  • http://domesticfuel.com/category/bioenergy-bytes/Readers and editors of the international online publication, Biofuels Digest, for the fifth consecutive year, recognized Advanced Biofuels USA executive director Joanne Ivancic as one of the Top 125 People in the Advanced Bioeconomy.
  • Secretary Castro, of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and Governor Brown of California have announced a number of actions to expand financing for energy efficiency and solar energy in multifamily housing. The programs also set the U.S. on a track to reach President Obama’s goal of installing 100 megawatts of renewable energy across federally subsidized housing by 2020.
  • MillerCoors, a U.S. brewer with more than 400 years of American brewing heritage, today announced the completion of a 3.2 megawatt capacity solar panel installation at its Irwindale, Calif., brewery. The new solar array is the largest installed at any brewery in the U.S. and will significantly increase the brewery’s energy independence. With more than 10,000 solar panels installed across 10 acres of the brewery grounds, the MillerCoors solar array will produce enough energy to brew more than 7 million cases of beer annually. The brewery also creates biogas from wastewater to power two GE Jenbacher engines.
  • SunEdison, Inc. has completed its previously announced acquisition of First Wind Holdings, LLC. In the transaction, TerraForm Power purchased 500 MW of operating wind power plants and 21 MW of operating solar power plants from First Wind. The portfolio has an average counterparty credit rating of A- and brings the weighted average remaining PPA life to 16 years for the entire TerraForm fleet. The portfolio is expected to add $73 million of cash available for distribution (CAFD) in 2015. TerraForm Power reiterates its 2015 guidance of $214 million of CAFD and dividends of $1.30 per share.

Alt Electricity Surpasses Natural Gas

According to the latest “Energy Infrastructure Update” report from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s (FERC) Office of Energy Projects, new renewable energy sources generated more capacity than natural gas in 2014. Sources including biomass, geothermal, hydroelectric, solar and wind provided 49.81 percent (7,663 MW) of new electrical generation brought into service. Natural gas accounted for 48.65 percent (7,485 MW). By comparison, in 2013, natural gas accounted for 46.44% (7,378 MW) of new electrical generating capacity while renewables accounted for 43.03% (6,837 MW).

Biomass Photo Joanna SchroederNew wind energy facilities accounted for 26.52 percent of added capacity (4,080 MW) in 2014 while solar power provided 20.40 percent (3,139 MW). Other renewables – biomass (254 MW), hydropower (158 MW) and geothermal (32 MW) – accounted for an additional 2.89 percent.

For the year, just a single coal facility (106 MW) came online; nuclear power expanded by a mere 71MW due to a plant upgrade; and only 15 small “units” of oil, totaling 47 MW, were added.

Renewable energy sources now account for 16.63 percent of total installed operating generating capacity in the U.S.:

  • water – 8.42%
  • wind – 5.54%
  • biomass – 1.38%
  • solar – 0.96%
  • geothermal steam – 0.33%

Renewable energy capacity is now greater than that of nuclear (9.14%) and oil (3.94%) combined.

“Can there any longer be doubt about the emerging trends in new U.S. electrical capacity?” noted Ken Bossong, executive director of the SUN DAY Campaign. “Coal, oil, and nuclear have become historical relics and it is now a race between renewable sources and natural gas with renewables taking the lead.”

Blossman Develops Bi-Fuel Propane Cop Car

Ford InterceptorBlossman Services is developing a Bi-Fuel Propane Autogas Ford Interceptor for use for the law enforcement community. The company also offers other propane autogas vehicles including EPA emissions certifications for the Dodge Charger, Chevrolet Tahoe, Ford Crown Victoria, F150 and now the Interceptor.

According to Blossman, the bi-fuel system conversion on the Interceptor is precedent setting in that no intake manifold drilling, cutting, or splicing of wiring is required. The plug and play conversion will offer an additional 21 gallons of useable fuel and offer no comprises to the vehicle’s current safety or operational benefits.

The Bi-Fuel Propane AutoGas Ford Interceptor will be available this spring.

Offshore Wind Installations Stable

The European offshore wind industry has stabilized with new capacity installations declining by 84 MW in 2014 as compared to 2013 according to the new report, “The European offshore wind industry-key trends and statistics 2014“. During 2014, 408 new offshore turbines were fully grid connected, adding 1,483 MW to the European system. The total installed capacity for Europe now stands at 8,045MW in 74 offshore wind farms in 11 European countries.

Justin Wilkes, deputy chief executive officer of the European Wind Energy Association, said, “It is not surprising that we see a levelling-off of installations in 2014 following a record year in 2013. The industry has seen exponential growth in the early part of this decade and this is a natural stabilising of that progress. Offshore wind will have a monumental part to play in the EU’s energy security drive as part of the European Energy Union but it EU offshore wind industry trends 2014 EWEAis political determination that will help Europe unlock its offshore wind potential.”

Wilkes noted that the technology and financing are there but long-term policy support is not. This is needed to to avoid the stop-go growth the offshore wind industry has been experiencing.

In 2014, the UK accounted for over half of all new installations (54.8%) with Germany in second (35.7%) and Belgium (9.5%) making up the rest. But for 2015, Germany is expected to install more offshore capacity than the UK, which has dominated installations in Europe for the past three years. The largest wind farms to be fully completed will be RWE’s Gwynt y Mor (576MW) in North Wales followed by Global Tech 1 (400MW) in the German North Sea.

Wilkes added, “Germany is set to buck the trend this year. The UK has more installed offshore capacity than the rest of the world combined but this year shows that other countries in the EU are making serious investments in the sector. The nine financial deals closed in 2014, of which 4 were “billion-Euro” projects, suggest that activity will pick up substantially as of 2017 as these projects begin to hit the water.”

BioEnergy Bytes

  • http://domesticfuel.com/category/bioenergy-bytes/Whirlpool Corporation is using wind energy to power its manufacturing facility located in Findlay, Ohio. The Findlay Wind Farm is an $18 million “Wind for Industry” project, financed by One Energy. The wind farm will have five wind turbines with Whirlpool utilizing two and nearby Ball Company using three. The turbines are expected to offset an estimated 22% of the Whirlpool’s electric consumption.
  • While organic photovoltaics (OPV) still hasn’t achieved escape velocity from lab results into real commercialized products, according to a new report, “Organic Photovoltaics Markets, 2015-2022,” from industry analyst firm NanoMarkets, the current window for achieving success appears to be shaping up in a medium-term scope. New projections from the firm forecast OPV revenues to crack $500 million in revenues by 2022 — assuming the roadmaps and plans of key OPV firms stay the course and are not delayed any more.
  • Siva Power has announced it has closed a Series D financing round, which along with other recent efforts has raised a total of $10 million in new capital for the California-based firm. The funding enables Siva to begin building a key production component and narrow down its site selection for where to establish the world’s most cost-competitive manufacturing plant for highly efficient, low-cost solar panels.
  • E.ON Climate & Renewables North America (EC&RNA) and GE Unit have announced they have secured approximately $222 million in institutional equity financing and commitments to fund future capital contributions from Bank of America Merrill Lynch and JPM Capital Corporation in exchange for partial interest in the Grandview Wind Farm, LLC. The 211 MW wind farm is located in Carson County, 26 miles east of Amarillo, Texas, and features 118 GE 1.7-100 turbines.

GEA Rolling Out Industry Assesment

The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) is rolling out an industry assessment and early results show that there were 3,150 permanent, onsite employees, or 1.17 permanent jobs per megawatt installed, at geothermal power plants in California and the West. According to GEA, this is 19 times that of reported onsite employment of wind projects and 5 times reported onsGEA logoite employment for solar projects.

“In addition to environmental and reliability benefits, geothermal power has important economic values to local communities,” noted Ben Matek, GEA’s Industry Analyst & Research Projects Manager. “While geothermal produces many more construction and manufacturing jobs, as do most technologies, we believe it is a leader in creating stable, permanent employment in the communities in which geothermal plants operate.”

GEA will be releasing employment and other data on the U.S .and global geothermal power industry at its State of the Geothermal Energy Industry Briefing taking place at in Washington, D.C. on Tuesday, February 24, 2015. Event speakers are all confirmed and include experts in geothermal development, finance, technology and policy. The GEA will distribute the 2015 installation of its annual industry update to attendees of this event that will include statistical updates on the U.S. and global geothermal market including new capacity online, how much is developing and in what regions around the world.

Sessions include discussions on key opportunities and obstacles for industry growth in the U.S. and around the world, multilateral and private finance, the role of technological advancements in geothermal development, and policy and regulatory issues impacting the geothermal industry.