Interactive Map Shows Biofuel Friendly Policies

According to the Global Renewable Fuels Alliance (GRFA), 62 countries now have biofuels friendly policies in place that have driven global demand to over 1 million barrels per day. To help people around the world keep track of the changing political landscape, GRFA has launched an Interactive World Biofuels Map available on their new website.

“It is amazing to watch the growth of the biofuels industry from a global perspective,” said Bliss Baker, spokesperson for the GRFA. “Today, governments have embraced biofuels in every corner of the world, from Australia to Zimbabwe.”

GRFA Interactive Globla Biofuels MapOne of the latest countries to enact a biofuels mandate is India. Currently their mandate is set at 5 percent ethanol content and scheduled to increase to 10 percent as soon as production capacity is in place. India has ultimately set a goal of 20 percent for all biofuels content by 2017.

“Enacting biofuels friendly policies in developing countries and growing economies like India will be crucial for the continued growth of the global biofuels industry and reducing our reliance on crude imports,” said Baker. “The GRFA applauds the government of India for taking the steps to reduce its reliance on crude oil and setting a plan in place to become a global leader in biofuels use and production.”

Baker explains that the new Interactive World Biofuels Map clearly shows that biofuels production and policies are no longer limited to the United States and Brazil, but have spread to numerous countries that are struggling to reduce GHG emissions and reduce their reliance on crude imports.

“It is interesting to note that several African countries now have biofuels friendly policies in place. Countries like Nigeria, Ethiopia, Sudan and Mozambique all now have biofuels friendly policies in place to encourage the use and production of renewable fuels. In total, ten African countries have implemented biofuels friendly policies to reduce their crude oil reliance,” concluded Baker.

Wallace Goes Full Throttle for Ethanol

Bristol Motor Speedway will see a familiar face and a familiar brand Saturday for the Food City 250, as American Ethanol again joins forces with veteran driver Kenny Wallace. Wallace climbs back behind the wheel of the No. 29 RAB Racing American Ethanol Toyota Camry.

770“I’m so excited to be going to Bristol Motor Speedway, the ultimate short track, for grassroots racing just like I grew up on. The night race at Bristol is absolutely electrifying, and I’m really excited to be a part of it and looking forward to showing off our new American Ethanol paint scheme,” said Wallace. “It’s been almost a full year since I’ve raced an American Ethanol Camry, and I’m so happy to be debuting a brand new paint scheme for them on a very special day for me, my 50th birthday.”

Wallace, a veteran of the .533-mile oval, has not only won at “Thunder Valley”, but has finished in the top ten in half of his Nationwide Series starts (18 of 36). Additionally, Wallace has two top-ten finishes and two laps led in Sprint Cup Series competition at Bristol Motor Speedway.

“We (NASCAR drivers) have driven more than four million miles on American Ethanol. It’s been well accepted in the sport because it works. The transition was easy. We got more power and better performance,” said Wallace. “Unlike imported oil, ethanol is good for our economy and creates jobs in America both in ethanol plants and on family farms.”

This will mark the first NASCAR Nationwide Series race in 2013 that American Ethanol will be the primary sponsor on the No. 29 of Kenny Wallace, with RAB Racing. This will also be Wallace’s 897th NASCAR start.

“Away from the track Kenny is an outspoken advocate for American Ethanol and family farmers,” said Jon Holzfaster, a Paxton, Neb. farmer and chairman of the National Corn Growers Association’s NASCAR Advisory Committee. “He is a fan favorite and has played a big role in building fan support for ethanol within the sport. Today, NASCAR fans are 50 percent more likely than non-fans to support the use of ethanol in their own cars.”

Haiti To Build BioEnergy Zones

Haiti-based Sonamar, S.A. and Bangalore-based VayuGrid have entered into a partnership to develop BioEnergy Zones across Haiti. These bioenergy pockets will produce renewable energy through elite biofuel trees developed by VayuGrid. The two companies believe the project will deliver social, environmental and economic benefit to the country.

Briquettes-in-Stove-small-300x200The zones will be developed in non-arable land across Haiti to supply biodiesel, cooking briquettes, and high-protein animal feed. Social benefits will be realized, say the companies, through jobs and economic opportunities for the communities servicing the BioEnergy Zones; environmental benefits via renewable energy and reduction of deforestation through biofuels, and economic benefits by way of an agriculture financial model that is sustainable without government subsidies.

“We see great benefit in developing a high yielding crop that not only produces clean energy, but will also supply the cooking fuel to significantly reduce the large scale deforestation across Haiti,” said Alix Douyon, President of Sonamar S. A.

Sonamar, S.A. has an agreement with the Energy Ministry in Haiti for development of energy crops and has access to large tracks of barren land. As the local execution partner, Sonamar will work with local communities to develop the services-based ecosystem around BioEnergy Zones, creating long term opportunities for jobs and income within the communities.

“There is significant attention on how to make lasting changes in Haiti,” said Douglas Peterson, CEO of VayuGrid. “We are pleased to develop this agreement with Sonamar and expect significant benefit for Haiti directly and foresee that Haiti will become a demonstrator for the region for deploying large scale and sustainable renewable energy projects.”

The initial project will be for 1,000 acres and supply over 1.2 million gallons of biodiesel per year, and 15,000 tons of green coal. The project will be expanded to over 20,000 acres over the next 4 years.

BioEnergy Bytes

  • BioEnergyBytesDFThe International Bioenergy and Bioproducts Conference (IBBC) is taking place in Green Bay, Wisconsin on September 18-20, 2013. The focus of the event is to advance biorefineries in the forest products industry. Event topics will include biomass supply and demand, biochemical conversion of biomass, thermochemical conversion of biomass, conversion pathways, and modeling. Registration is still open.
  • Biomass Magazine is offering a free webinar, “My Old School: How Anaerobic Digestion is Gaining Traction on American College Campuses on Thursday, August 29, 2013 at 10:00 am CDT. Register here.
  • Washington County, Maryland is moving ahead with a project to develop a refused derived fuel (RDF) facility to process municipal solid waste as well as a waste gasification facility that will produce biofuels. The County, who has partnered with America First Inc., is also considering mining previously landfilled waste for additional feedstock. The County hopes the project will provide an economic development tool to attract companies looking for a sustainable community with zero waste opportunities.
  • Community-owned solar developer Clean Energy Collective (CEC) has signed a purchase power agreement with the Yampa Valley Electric Association (YVEA) launching YVEA Community Solar. The agreement allows YVEA to buy 500 kW of renewable energy from CEC’s solar power system under construction in Craig, Colorado.

Caltech Announces New Energy Awards

The Resnick Sustainability Institute at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) has established an award, called RESONATE, that will honor cutting-edge work that addresses some of the hardest resonate2014problems in energy and sustainability. The award winners will be announced in the Spring of 2014. The RESONATE Awards will focus on innovative, paradigm-shifting work from individuals at an early stage in their careers, whose ideas are worthy of significant, widespread recognition. This work can be from many fields including science, technology, economics, public policy, or others.

The intent of the awards is to draw attention to the innovators making significant strides in some of the grand challenges facing humanity, within the context of achieving global sustainability. These include meeting the world’s energy needs sustainably, providing water and food for a growing world population, cleaning the environment, improving people’s access to the natural resources they need to live a productive life, and others.

“The big issues in sustainability demand a perspective that is creative, global, and untethered by prior conventional wisdom,” said Dr. Harry Atwater, Director of the Resnick Sustainability Institute, and Howard Hughes Professor and Professor of Applied Physics and Materials Science Caltech. “These awards have been created to encourage and honor people who are rethinking solutions to conquer these challenges.”

The RESONATE judging panel will be comprised of a team of individuals appointed by Resnick Sustainability Institute leadership. Judges will be selected based on their track records of outstanding achievement in academia, industry, government, journalism, and society.

20 Climate Change Steps for DOE

Peer-Reviewed-Articles-Dr-James-L-Powell-756-by-506The Bicameral Task Force on Climate Change recently released a white paper recommending 20 steps the Department of Energy (DOE) should take in carrying out the President’s Climate Action Plan. The recommendations include strengthening specific energy efficiency standards, accelerating the development and deployment of low-carbon energy technologies, expanding the use of energy savings performance contracts to save energy at federal facilities, encouraging reforms in state building codes and utility rate structures, maximizing the contribution of power marketing administrations, and analyzing the climate change impacts of liquefied natural gas exports.

“This report provides a roadmap for the Department of Energy as it implements President Obama’s climate change plan,” said Senator Sheldon Whitehouse. “The steps we outline would accelerate the development of clean, renewable energy; improve energy efficiency; and reduce dangerous carbon pollution. I look forward to working with Secretary Moniz as DOE ramps up its work to address this serious threat.”

The report is based on feedback by more than 200 groups ranging from efficiency advocates to Fortune 500 companies to environmental organizations to electric utilities. In addition, DOE officials and academics also provided input.

Keeping in mind the “financial” crisis of the federal government, page 11 of the report notes that while Congress seems unlikely to act to support additional loan guarantees, DOE currently has $2.3 billion for energy efficiency and renewable energy loan guarantees as well as $4 billion in loan guarantee authority that it can use for projects of any type.

“Congress should act to support additional loan guarantees, but there is little
prospect that Congress will do so in the near term . . . “We recommend that DOE support innovative energy efficiency and renewable energy projects to the full extent of DOE’s remaining authority. Providing loan guarantees for worthy projects of these types would be a concrete step towards reaching the President’s goal of once again doubling renewable electricity generation from wind, solar, and geothermal resources by 2020.”

NextFuels Producing Biofuels from Palm Residue

NextFuels has unveiled its strategy for economically producing transportation and industrial fuels from wet, unprocessed agricultural waste. The underlying technology, which was developed by Shell Oil over several years, will allow NextFuels and its partners to produce bio-based petroleum at commercial scale for $75 to $85 a barrel out of wet biomass that has not been mechanically or thermally dried. The company will also provide palm plantation owners and others a way to transform the tons of residual plant matter generated by agricultural operations into a new, profitable second crop.

Screen Shot 2013-08-21 at 12.17.54 PMThe company is collaborating on its commercial strategy with Enagra on the development of its technology.

“Dr. Frans Goudriaan and Dr. Jaap Naber have been working on this technology for almost 30 years. With Dr. Ralph Overend’s extensive background in the biomass and biofuels space, we are extremely excited to be moving this unique technology forward,” said Michael Petras, CEO of NextFuels. “While we have a lot of work ahead of us, we look forward to helping solve the biomass issue in Malaysia.”

According to NextFuels, edible palm oil has surpassed soybean to become the largest source of cooking oil in the world, accounting for over 50 million tons of oil annually. While plantation owners have managed to increase the productivity of their land by 15 times since the late 80s, the growth of the industry has created a corresponding residue problem. Approximately 4.4 to 6 metric tons of agricultural waste is generated for each metric ton of oil. There are over 1,000 crude palm oil (CPO) mills in Southeast Asia and a single (60 tons per hour) mill can generate 135,000 tons of agricultural residue a year.

NextFuels use a system called bio-liquefaction that efficiently transforms agricultural biomass to green energy. Biomass is placed into the plant mixed with water. The mixture is then heated to 330◦ Celsius while pressure is increased to 220 bar. Increasing the pressure keeps the water from coming to a boil, which conserves energy.

When cooled, the hydrocarbons form a putty-like substance called GreenCrude. Roughly 25% of the GreenCrude can be burned as a solid fuel in industrial boilers. The remaining 75% can be converted into a liquid-fuel equivalent to petroleum that is compatible with existing pipelines and vehicles. The equipment required to convert GreenCrude into liquid fuels, in a process called hydrodeoxygenation, is already installed at most refineries and can accept GreenCrude with minor refinements. Continue reading

BioEnergy Bytes

  • BioEnergyBytesDFUL (Underwriters Laboratories), a global safety science leader, was recently selected as the only foreign testing center for wind turbine generation systems over 750kW by the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards (KATS), a division within the Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MTIE). This designation by the Korean MTIE will allow global and local companies to earn not only local certification for Korea, but also international certification as it follows the IEC 61400-22 or GL Guideline. The new certification process for large scale wind turbine generation systems is anticipated to begin on September 1, 2013.
  • The 4th Texas Offshore Wind Energy Roundtable (TOWER) Conference, hosted by the German American Chamber of Commerce of the Southern US, Inc. and the Texas Wind Energy Clearinghouse, is taking place in Houston, Texas on August 27-28, 2013. The goal of the conference is to help industry leaders from Texas realize opportunities and obstacles by bringing some of the leading experts from Europe and the US to Houston. Conference participants can expect to be caught up on the latest developments and challenges in the Texas offshore and onshore wind market and to be able to network with some of the biggest players in the wind industry from the Gulf Coast region.
  • Construction is beginning for geothermal at the Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT). The college offers an undergraduate renewable energy major, hosts the research-oriented Geo-Heat Center, and will soon increase its own geothermal capacity with a new 1.75-MW small geothermal plant. OIT already has a small 280-kW geothermal
    combined heat and power plant, and with the new geothermal addition as well as a new solar array, the campus will be almost completely carbon neutral.
  • Real Goods Solar has completed the acquisition of Syndicated Solar, Inc. Based in Denver, Colorado, Syndicated Solar’s efficient sales processes and integrated software tools have enabled it to rapidly grow in the residential sector. The company has three regional offices in Grand Junction, Colorado, and in the St. Louis, Missouri, and San Jose, California metro areas, all of which will remain in place.

India & Australia Renewable Energy Investments Up

India and Australia, powered by policy support from the government, will increase their share of renewable energy projects in the near future, according to the recent report, Asia-Pacific Renewable Energy Policy Handbook 2013, published by GlobalData. In addition, the report finds China will remain the largest market in the Asia-Pacific region.

According to the report, Australia’s cumulative installed capacity for renewable power surged from 849 MW in 2001 to 5,968 MW in 2012. The cumulative share of solar and wind power accounted for 80 percent of the country’s total renewable power capacity in 2012, growing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 41 percent.

india-solar34 photo solarfeeds.comIndia has also invested heavily in solar energy, with the government expecting to deploy 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022. Furthermore, the country aims to increase the capacity of grid-connected solar power generation to 1,000 MW by 2013 and 3,000 MW by 2017, through mandatory use of renewables by utility providers.

Due to a rising number of new installations, the report finds China will remain the leading industry for renewable energy in the Asia-Pacific region, while retaining its position as the largest wind power market in the world with 75.6 GW installed capacity in 2012. In addition, the reports finds that favorable government policies and incentives in the Asia-Pacific region have become an important tool to boost the renewable energy industry.

“Most countries are supporting renewable sources in order to aid recovery from the economic downturn. Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Feed-In Tariffs (FITs) are the two most prominent support mechanisms implemented by countries that are driving renewable energy market development,” explained Swati Singh, GlobalData’s Analyst covering Power.

In addition, the report details other incentives, such as capital subsidies, grants, rebates, tax credits and exemptions, as well as reduced-rate loans, being offered by these countries to help further promote the use of renewable power.

Senators Call for Big Oil Investigation

U.S. Senators Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) and Chuck Grassley (R-IA) called on the Justice Department and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to investigate possible anticompetitive Senators Grassley and Klobucharpractices by oil companies that limit consumers access to homegrown renewable fuels such as ethanol. In a letter to Attorney General Eric Holder and FTC Chairwoman Edith Ramirez, Klobuchar, the Chair of the Antitrust Subcommittee, and Grassley, the Ranking Member of the Judiciary Committee, urged the Administration to take action to address recent reports indicating that oil companies may be undermining efforts to distribute renewable fuels, including higher ethanol gasoline blends, that help boost our nation’s energy security and lower the price of gas for consumers.

“The promise of renewable fuels is rapidly becoming a reality and introducing much needed competition to the transportation fuels sector,” the members said. “Given the implication these alleged activities, if true, could have on competition in the marketplace, we urge you to investigate them and consider whether any action is necessary. We look forward to working with you to ensure that Americans can continue to realize the benefits of cheaper, cleaner renewable fuel.”

Both Senators Klobuchar and Grassley have been strong advocates for the continuation, as is, of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS).

In response to the Senators’ calls for a Big Oil investigation, Ron Lamberty, Senior Vice President for the American Coalition for Ethanol (ACE), said, “ACE members thank Senators Grassley and Klobuchar for standing up to Big Oil and investigating this market-restricting behavior on the part of the oil companies. The RFS will only be unworkable if Congress allows Big Oil to make it appear unworkable. If we had more lawmakers like Senators Grassley and Klobuchar, maybe Big Oil’s attacks wouldn’t be taken so seriously in Washington. Continue reading

Growth in Wind Industry to Boost O&M Market

According to a new report from GlobalData, with wind energy capacity growing at rapid pace, the value of the operations and maintenance (O&M) market is expected to increase from $3 billion in 2008 to $19 billion in 2020. The report finds that more than 191 GW of wind power capacity was added between 2008 and 2012, which has drastically increased O&M expenditure from $3 billion to $7 billion in the same period, demonstrating a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 15.6 percent.

Wind Farm near Galva Iowa Photo Joanna SchroederOffshore wind energy will continue to attract higher O&M costs in comparison to onshore wind, reaching a market size of $5 billion, or a 29 percent share of the total O&M market in 2020. Currently, the U.S. is the largest O&M market in the world, but GlobalData expects that China will surpass it to become the leader in O&M expenditure, with a 24.7 percent share of the market by 2020.

Prasad Tanikella, GlobalData’s Senior Analyst, said: “Higher turbine maintenance, high logistics costs and a lack of skilled manpower make offshore wind services more challenging than the onshore equivalent. Although onshore wind also faces similar issues, the impact of these factors on the offshore segment is more significant.”

According to Wind Operations & Maintenance Market, 2013 Update – Global Market Size, Share by Component, Competitive Landscape and Key Country Analysis to 2020, the growth in the wind industry’s O&M cost is largely due to the increasing age of wind turbines and the failure of components such as blades and gearboxes.

“This increase in market size is leading to a rise in the number of companies providing specialized wind turbine O&M services, which is in turn bringing the benefit of lower costs to consumers,” Tanikella concluded.

Solar Panels Being Installed On White House

They say nothing is a secret in Washington, D.C. and it’s no secret that after intense pressure from several environmental organizations including 350.org, solar panels are now being installed on the White House. Some will remember the days when President Jimmy weputsolaronit1Carter installed 32 solar panels on the storied home back in the late 70s only to have them removed when President Ronald Reagan took office in 1981 saying they were a “joke”.

Another company that helped lead the effort was Sungevity, whose co-founder Danny Kennedy helped solicit more than 50,000 signatures in 2010 urging the President and First Lady to install solar power on the White House.

“Sungevity applauds President Obama for upholding his commitment to renewable energy by putting solar panels back on the White House. Solar is fast becoming America’s most popular home improvement, and we are very pleased to see the First Family follow the American peoples’ lead,” said Kennedy. “Support for solar energy is one issue that rises above the political fray. All Americans can reap benefits from widespread solar adoption – solar power saves money, boosts the economy and creates jobs.”

In light of the news installation has begun, Unity College, an environmental college in Maine, has been promoting its role in rescuing the original solar panels from obscurity. In 2010, Swiss filmmakers Christina Hemauer and Roman Keller told the story in a documentary called, A Road Not Taken. When President Carter installed the panels atop the White House, he characterized the action as either a bold step in the development of cheap, renewable energy, or an example of a road not taken. The latter was the course of history and artistic focus of the documentary.

Sara Trunzo ’08, Food and Farms Project Coordinator at Unity College, was featured in the documentary. She and another Unity College alum, Jason Reynolds ’05, went on a road trip from Unity, Maine, to the Carter Center in Atlanta, Georgia, searching for the meaning of America’s turn from the opportunity to pursue renewable energy that President Carter had championed.

“My participation in ‘A Road Not Taken’ was a transformative moment in my education because it helped me understand the power of integrating sustainability, communication, policy, art, and activism to send a message,” said Trunzo. “The film is a beautiful piece of modern storytelling that captures an important moment in US energy history and Unity College history, too.”

Iowa E85 Sales Jump 43% in 2nd Quarter

E85 pump price Aug 2013Sales of E85 have increased 43 percent over the first quarter of 2013. Iowans purchased more than 2.62 million gallons of E85 in the second quarter of 2013, up from the 1.83 million gallons of E85 purchased in the first quarter of 2013, according to Iowa Department of Revenue data.

“E85 sales were down at the end of 2012 and beginning of 2013 due to last summer’s drought, but we’re seeing those numbers turn around now with very attractive E85 prices,” said Iowa Renewable Fuels Association (IRFA), Executive Director Monte Shaw. “As impressive as the 43 percent increase in second quarter E85 sales was, we should see E85 sales grow even further as the price savings are even better now. I routinely pay more than $1 per gallon less than regular unleaded for E85, and that’s serious savings.”

The IRFA recently launched a wholesale E85 price reporting campaign to promote greater transparency for retailers and distributors of E85 in order to aid retailers in supplying their consumers with the lowest-cost E85 available. The IRFA publishes Thursday’s wholesale E85 prices every Friday.

BioEnergy Bytes

  • BioEnergyBytesDFCanadian Solar has been chosen to provide solar modules for a solar project on the Leeward Islands. Comet Solar, an Anguilla-based solar installation company selected Canadian Solar, and when complete the solar power project will provide an estimated 600KW of power per year, making it the largest commercial project permitted by the St. Kitts & Nevis Government to date.
  • The most powerful turbine-generator unit ever built by Voith has entered service in the Chinese hydropower plant Xiluodu on the Jinsha River. After a successful 72-hour test run, Voith handed over the first of a total of three such machines to the customer “China Three Gorges Corporation.” With 784 megawatt the output of the generator-turbine unit in Xiluodu is higher than that of the world’s largest hydropower plants and consequently sets new standards.
  • The World Energy Council (WEC) has welcomed Enerjisa as the newest member of Global Partner programme. Enerjisa is a leading energy company operating in Turkey’s electricity generation, distribution, trading, wholesale and retail markets. The WEC is working to devise strategies to address global energy challenges and to deliver sustainable energy systems.
  • The 6th Sugar Asia conference will be held at the Bombay Exhibition Centre in Mumbai February 27-28, 2014. Sugar Asia is an international Conference and Expo on Sugar and its allied industries. This two days event will be focused on equipments and technology display for Sugar and allied industries like Ethanol, Distilleries, Cogen and Cane Farming. A two days conference is major highlight of the event where galaxy of international speakers are going to deliver best of their research, information and experience in front of the audience coming from various countries.

How the Make the RFS Attainable

According to Purdue University energy policy specialist Wally Tyner, the U.S. can likely produce federally mandated levels of biofuels under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in 2014 if the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reduces its requirements by 2.3 billion gallons. The RFS requires a minimum amount of biofuels to be blended into transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel. For 2013, that level is 16.55 billion gallons. As it stands now, the volume requirement continues to rise each year until 2022.

tyner-w10Tyner projects that refiners could reasonably expect to produce 15.85 billion gallons of biofuels, less than the 18.15 billion that the EPA requires in its RFS for 2014. The EPA said on Aug. 6 that it will “propose adjustments” to next year’s volume requirements in the next few weeks. One element that has caused the EPA to change required volumes is the lack of commercially available “advanced” and “cellulosic” biofuels. However, despite the lowering of these category volumes, the EPA has maintained the overall biofuels production requirement.

“The devil is in the details. However, it is clear that if the EPA does what is implied … the RFS moves from being unworkable to quite manageable,” Tyner says in his article, “The Biofuels Renewable Fuel Standard – EPA to the Rescue.”

The RFS has been a topic of debate for several years in part because of the corn ethanol “blend wall,” the point at which the market cannot consume as much ethanol as the EPA requires to be produced. One reason, and one that was not factored in during the development of the RFS, is the decreased consumption of gasoline nationwide –  from 141 billion gallons in 2007, when the RFS mandates were last updated, to a rate of 133 billion now.

Tyner calculates in the report that 15.85 billion gallons of biofuels can be produced in 2014 if the EPA reduces its volume targets for corn ethanol to better align with the blend wall, Wheat Straw credit: Flickr Creative Commons:and by lowering its requirements for production of cellulosic biofuels such as from corn stover, straw and Miscanthus grass to what the EPA might deem to be available.

He said blend requirements could be met in 2015 and 2016 with similar reductions. With no changes in the RFS, the energy industry would have to blend 20.5 billion gallons of biofuels into gasoline in 2015 and 22.25 billion gallons in 2016. His calculations would reduce those totals to 16.58 billion in 2015 and 17.3 billion the following year.

The EPA has shown willingness to reconsider the blend mandates and using information it has at hand, along with analyses done by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), plans to announce final 2014 volumes sometime this fall.