Boeing: Biofuel Use by Airlines Up to 1% by 2015

Boeing’s top environmental officer says that commercial airlines might use up to 1 percent biofuels made from plants and algae by the year 2015.

Bloomberg quotes Billy Glover, managing director of environmental strategy at Boeing’s commercial airplanes unit, as pointing out that has worked with airlines from the U.S. to Japan to test jet fuels made from plants such as jatropha and camelina:

“We need to get to 1 percent to get that foundation and then the trajectory will be significantly steeper,” Glover said in a telephone interview in London. “We’re aiming for a 1 percent penetration around the middle of this decade, and we think that’s quite achievable.”

Airlines are striving to reduce emissions that the United Nations says account for at least 3 percent of the global- warming gas pollution. The environment group Greenpeace estimates output of the gases from carriers will double by 2050. To help curb pollution, the 27-nation European Union will bring airlines into its carbon cap-and trade system in 2012.

No carriers use biofuels for regularly scheduled flights though airlines have tested biofuels in flight since 2008. That was when Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd., controlled by the U.K. billionaire Richard Branson, tested a jumbo jet partly powered by fuel from babassu nuts and coconut oil.

Since then, airlines including Air New Zealand Ltd., Continental and Japan Airlines Corp. have tested biofuels sourced from various crops in their planes.

Officials say the key for success with airlines using biofuels will be to scale up production of the green fuels.

William & Mary Turns Fish Killer Into Biodiesel

Virginia’s College of William and Mary is turning algae, which is killing fish in a local lake, into biodiesel.

This article from the Daily Press says the school, working with industry and other universities, is using a flume to remove the algae from Lake Matoaka:

A rectangle-shaped floating dock with its midsection removed, the flume acts as a channel that will trap nitrogen, phosphorous and other nutrients that form oxygen-deprived dead zones in the lake and Chesapeake Bay watershed.

“Think of it as a rain-gutter-type device,” said Karl Kuschner, the university’s research scientist leading the effort. “We’ll be creating a 40-foot long hole in the water.”

Blobs of what looks like green cottage cheese — algae — cover the shore. As the algae dies, it descends to the lake floor consuming oxygen, said Dennis Manos, university vice provost. The dead zones send bass, gar, turtles and other marine life scrambling for safer waters.

“This,” Manos said gesturing toward to the lake, “is occassionally only a day or two away from a fish kill.”

In addition to the oil extracted from the algae, which will be used to research the potential of algae-biodiesel, the process is also able to get about 12 to 16 gallons of dry algae from the lake each month.

OriginOil to Harvest Hydrogen from Algae

OriginOil, Inc., a company that has developed technology to extract oil from algae to be a competitor with petroleum, has invented a process that will be able to get hydrogen from the living algae.

This company press release
says the new Hydrogen Harvester will use little or no external energy inputs, requires no sulfur deprivation or other “stressing” of the algae, and no genetic modification:

“One of the primary challenges for algae production is to achieve the best-possible energy balance,” said Riggs Eckelberry, OriginOil CEO. “By harvesting hydrogen from algae we are able to increase the energy output of virtually any algae production system. The result is a photosynthetic technology platform that yields energy in the form of oil, biomass, and hydrogen.”

Algae already create oxygen through photosynthesis. Recovering hydrogen provides the necessary ingredients for electricity generation using fuel cells. The energy can be used to offset the electricity requirements of algae cultivation, harvesting and downstream processing.

Dr. Brian Goodall, OriginOil’s new CTO, commented: “The co-generation of hydrogen at the algae production site is a critical development for the realization of a completely integrated algal biorefinery. All routes from algae to ‘drop-in’ fuels such as renewable diesel and jet fuel require hydrogen and hydrotreating. The Hydrogen Harvester technology would eliminate the need for hydrogen pipelines and dependence on existing refineries which are typically far removed from ideal sites for algae growth.”

The press release goes on to say that the Hydrogen Harvester is becoming part of OriginOil’s stable of algae growth technologies.

Three Algae Biofuels Consortia to Share $24 Mil Funding

Three groups researching algae-based biofuels will get a big boost from $24 million in funding from the U.S. Department of Energy.

Biofuels Digest reports that Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Cathy Zoi made the announcemet at this week’s BIO World Congress on Industrial Biotechnology and Bioprocessing in Washington, DC:

According to Zoi, the selections will support the development of a clean, sustainable transportation sector – a goal of the Department’s continued effort to spur the creation of the domestic bio-industry while creating jobs.

At the same time, Zoi announced the release of the final version of the National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap, a draft of which was released last June, based on workshop results from a meeting in DC that attracted 200 stakeholders. The final report reflects the substantive comments received during the public comment phase and, according to the DOE, “is intended to guide future work and investments in algal biofuels.”

The three consortia selected for funding are:

Sustainable Algal Biofuels Consortium (Mesa, AZ)
Led by Arizona State University, this consortium will focus on testing the acceptability of algal biofuels as replacements for petroleum-based fuels. Tasks include investigating biochemical conversion of algae to fuels and products, and analyzing physical chemistry properties of algal fuels and fuel intermediates. (DOE share: up to $6 million)

Consortium for Algal Biofuels Commercialization (San Diego, CA)
Led by the University of California, San Diego, this consortium will concentrate on developing algae as a robust biofuels feedstock. Tasks include investigating new approaches for algal crop protection, algal nutrient utilization and recycling, and developing genetic tools. (DOE funding: up to $9 million)

Cellana, LLC Consortium (Kailua-Kona, HI)
Led by Cellana, LLC, this consortium will examine large-scale production of fuels and feed from microalgae grown in seawater. Tasks include integrating new algal harvesting technologies with pilot-scale cultivation test beds, and developing marine microalgae as animal feed for the aquaculture industry. (DOE funding: up to $9 million)

The article goes on the say the projects will take place over three-year periods.

Algae Producers to Help Fight Gulf Oil Spill

Got an urgent message from my friend Tamra Fakhoorian with the Mid-South Chapter of the National Algae Association looking for volunteers to help with a cleanup effort some members of the algae-producing community are sponsoring. She says they need 10,000 volunteers to help algae oil and biofuel producers Ultra Green International and Algaeventure Systems use their algae know-how to clean up the millions of gallons of petroleum pouring into the Gulf of Mexico:

The plan is simple: we’re using a highly absorbent matting invented by US scientists in Ohio to mop up the spill, cleaning the Gulf and collecting the oil at the same time. A flotilla of 168 ships manned by local fishermen is poised and ready to patrol the Gulf, literally vacuuming up the 36 million gallons of oil threatening the beaches.

BP has failed to act quickly to solve this crisis and Ultra Green intends to fill the gap. With the help of our science partners Algaeventure Systems, and hundreds of local fishermen who have seen their livelihoods disappear, we are planning to Save the Gulf from the worst ecological disaster in American history.

More details and information on how to volunteer are available at www.sossavethegulfcoast.com.

Synthetic Cells Hold Biofuels Potential

Researchers at the J. Craig Venter Institute yesterday announced the successful construction of the first self-replicating, synthetic bacterial cell, which could potentially have numerous applications – including the production of new biofuels, according to Synthetic Genomics (SGI).

Specifically, they are talking about new algae-based biofuels, if the researchers can take the discovery to that next step. They are working on using the same technique they used to create the synthetic bacteria to create synthetic algae, which is also single-celled, but more complex than bacteria. If they are successful, they hope to use them to create biofuels by photosynthesis.

SGI, which was founded by Dr. Venter and is the Institute’s primary backer, has an alliance with Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering (EMRE) group “focused on finding and optimizing (through synthetic genome techniques and other more traditional metabolic engineering techniques) algae to produce biological crude oil replacements efficiently.” The J. Craig Venter Institute has facilities in Rockville, Maryland and San Diego, Calif.; SGI is headquartered in La Jolla, Calif.

Photo credit: Electron micrographs were provided by Tom Deerinck and Mark Ellisman of the National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research at the University of California at San Diego.

Using Computer Parts to Grow Algae for Biodiesel

Usually, we talk about using high-tech computer programs to help producers get more biodiesel out of their operations. But this time, it’s the low-tech components that are the platforms for growing a feedstock for the green fuel.

Treehugger.com has this post about how students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have put together an algae bioreactor called the Bio-Grow to cultivate large amounts of algae for biodiesel using old computer parts:

“If someone had one of these in their homes, they would cultivate algae and extract it,” says Megan Kenney, one of the members of the five-person undergraduate team. “Then they could take it into a gas company that was set up with an oil filtration facility and get credit off their gas.”

The Bio-Grow’s various components would include side panels from an Apple G4 CPU tower for the incubating tank, with PVC pipes for structural reinforcement and high density foam for insulation and stability. An old Apple iMac CRT provides the light needed for photosynthesis, while a modified Dell Latitude CPX laptop controls and adjusts the temperature and required light spectrums generated by the iMac CRT. The device also features a water pump to aerate the algae and a faucet that allows user to harvest the algae at any time.

“Algae’s best growth factors are within the red and blue spectrums of light at a ratio of four to one,” Kenney explains. “We also knew that it needed to be 62 to 82 degrees.”

The hope is that people will be able to grow algae as part of a larger system and take that algae to a central collection point. The lipids in the algae would be extracted and sent to a refinery to make biodiesel, while the by-products would go into livestock feed, fertilizer and pharmaceuticals. The Bio-Grow team believes just under 7 percent of American homes would need to have a device to grow enough algae to replace petroleum with algae biodiesel.

Algae Association Has Successful Workshop

Got nice note from our friend, Tamra Fakhoorian with the National Algae Association’s Mid-South Chapter, who just recently completed a workshop in Huntsville, Alabama, entitled, “Algae: Mining Wastewater for Nutrients, Fuel, and Fertilizer.”

She tells us they had a good mix of attendees from all over the country who heard presentations from some of the nation’s leading experts on algae and its impact on the bioenergy field:

In addition, attendees learned of algae’s tremendous potential as a cost-effective bioremediation tool for wastewater streams, effecting a more stable and healthy ecosystem. Two such algae bioremediation systems were well represented by Mark Zivojnovich’s presentation on HydroMentia’s Algal Turf Scrubber and Lucas McConnell of Renewergy unveiling his company’s vertical algae system for nutrient recovery. Open pond scenarios for wastewater nutrient mining were described by Dr. Kimberly Jones of Alganomics and Dr. Aron Stubbins of Virginia Coastal Energy Research Consortium.

“Our goals for this workshop were to first raise awareness of the algae/wastewater connection for a wide variety of valued end products and using algae for bioremediation. Next, we focused on the many sources of point and non-point sources of wastewater and discussed algal growth system applications. Third, we placed emphasis on why we must address our nation’s finite phosphate supply and how algae is perfectly equipped to reclaim it from wastewater streams,” said workshop coordinator, Tamra Fakhoorian.

Attendees had comments, such as “Great event! Each presenter complimented the other with valuable information. Great question and answer session at end of day to touch on subjects not mentioned by presenters.”

Tamra promises more events and workshops in the future. If you’re interested, just contact Tamra at TamraF.NAA@wk.net

Researchers Check “Green-ness” of Algae-Biofuel

The assumption is that algae-based biofuels are better for the environment. But, as they say, the proof is in the pudding. And researchers are all about proving things.

This article from the Fort Collins (CO) Coloradoan says a pair of mechanical engineering professors from Colorado State are testing to see what gases come from burning algae oil:

“What are the consequences if we were to suddenly go from zero to 20 billion gallons of algae-based biofuel per year over the next 20 years?” [Anthony] Marchese said. “Are there going to be any consequences that we may not have thought about? Recent history is littered with examples of where we’ve moved too quickly with the technology without understanding the risks.”

Marchese and [Azer] Yalin have received a $325,000 National Science Foundation grant to conduct a study of emissions from algae-based biofuels, during which they’ll look at how pollutants are formed when the fuel burns.

The article goes on to say that locally-based Solix Biofuels, which produces biofuel from algae, is anxiously awaiting the results of the testing.

Solazyme Top Sustainable Biofuel

San Francisco-based Solazyme, Inc., a producer of algae-based fuels, has been recognized as the best in the Sustainable Biofuels Technology category at the 2nd Annual Sustainable Biofuels Awards.

This Solazyme press release says the award was handed out in Amsterdam at the World Biofuels Markets conference:

“Solazyme is honored to be nominated among some of the top biofuel technology companies in the world for this award,” said Jonathan Wolfson, CEO, Solazyme. “We are grateful to accept this top spot as our team has worked tirelessly to establish Solazyme’s technology platform as a viable alternative to traditional oil production methods.”

The World Biofuels Market selected a panel of independent judges to evaluate and analyze the nominations for these awards. Taken into consideration were sustainability benefits as measured by GHG savings, environmental impact and further societal benefits from each nomination’s operational or technological advances. Solazyme’s technology shows exponential benefits over petroleum in all of these categories.

In the seven years since its inception, Solayzme produced the world’s first algal-based renewable diesel, the world’s first 100 percent algal-based jet fuel, and road-tested the first algae-derived biodiesel. In addition, the company is supplying the U.S. Department of Defense with 21,500 gallons of fuel for Navy compatibility testing, making Solazyme the largest commercial algae fuel contractor to date.

Biofuels Alliance Disputes Virginia Research

A recent study by some University of Virginia researchers who say that algae might not be as environmentally friendly as some regular row crops when it comes to making biodiesel is coming under fire by algae and algal-biofuel organizations.

As you might remember from my post back on January 22, 2010, a study headed by Andres Clarens said that “algae’s environmental footprint is larger than other terrestrial crops.” But according to the executive director for the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (and several other groups that commented on that January 22 article), those Virginia researchers got it wrong. And NAABB’s Dr. Jose Olivares tells me that the main problem is in the fact that Clarens used data that just is not current anymore.

“A lot of [the data] came out during the aquatic species program, which ran for quite a few years, but ended in the early [1990s].”

He says that old data doesn’t account for the technological advances made in the last 15+ years that have cut algae oil’s production’s energy usage by 100 fold, while creating an environmental footprint for algae that is 20-100 times smaller than row crops.

[There’s] a huge danger of misinterpreting what is possible with these types of technologies.”

Olivares points out that there are some positive aspects of the Virginia study, including pointing out that algae can be grown using wastewater … which Olivares says the algal-biofuel industry is already doing.

You can hear more of my conversation with Dr. Olivares below.

Algae Assoc. to Hold Seminar on Using Wastewater

Our friends at the Mid-South Chapter of the National Algae Association are holding another seminar. This time the talk will be “Algae: Mining Wastewater for Nutrients, Fuel, and Fertilizer” at the Holiday Inn Research Center in Huntsville, Alabama on March 26, 2010.

I caught up with the chapter’s president, Tamra Fakhoorian, to talk about this information-packed workshop that will explore using wastewater streams to grow the algae for end-products to include biodiesel.

“Algae production is gaining momentum all over the world, and I want to ensure the algae industry gets off on the right foot regarding sustainability,” says Fakhoorian.

She adds that using wastewater to grow algae is a win-win-win situation: getting oil for growing biodiesel and end-products industries, minimizing the impact on fresh water sources, and saving the environment.

You can hear more of my interview with Fakhoorian below.

Fakhoorian has some pretty good experts slated for this one-day workshop, including:

Mark Zivojnich/Hydromentia
Aron Stubbins/ Old Dominion University- Deputy Director of Virginia Coastal Energy Research Consortium
Dr. Michael Baron
Chuck Pardue/Algae Bioenergy Solutions, LLC
Luke McConnell/Renewergy, LLC
Bob Vitale/WaterWheel Factory
Victoria Kurtz/Fluid Imaging

For more information, contact Fakhoorian at 270-328-8314 or e-mail her at tamraf.naa@wk.net. Also you can check out the Web site: www.nationalalgaeassociation.com and click on the Mid-South Chapter link. Registration is available at the door.

Expert: Algae Must Be Commercial Scale or Just Playing

A man who is considered to be the father of genomics says that if algae-based fuel makers can’t start making billions of gallons of fuel, they are just playing with investors’ money.

This post on earth2tech.com says Craig Venter, the founder of synthetic biology startup Synthetic Genomics, made the remarks at the Wall Street Journal’s Economics conference this week:

In other words the algae companies need to be able to reach the scale at which the oil companies currently operate to be competitive. “That’s the real bugaboo for everybody,” said Venter. To address that hurdle, last July Synthetic Genomics announced that it was partnering with ExxonMobil on a $600 million algae biofuels program.

Synthetic Genomics is different than many of the algae fuel companies out there — Venter estimated there are 200 or so — because Synthetic Genomics is looking to use its synthetic genetic processes to tweak algae and other microorganisms to create synthetic super bugs that can crank out as much fuel as possible. Such genetically-altered bugs could consume CO2 and create synthetic hydro-carbons that could be a fuel replacement.

Venter said the synthetic genomic process could one day fundamentally change not just fuel and transportation, but food supply, medicine, and clean water. Venter and his crew at the J. Craig Venter Institute have already created a completely synthetic bacterial genome, which they claimed back in 2008 was the largest man-made DNA structure ever. Now Venter and the researchers are “extremely close” to activating the synthetic bacteria chromosome in a new cell which would make “the first synthetic species,” and will be their “proof of concept,” as Venter put it at the conference. That’s some crazy stuff.

The article goes on to say that some biofuel companies, such as Synthetic Genomics, are forming partnerships with some big oil companies to address the issue. In addition, Algae biofuel maker Sapphire Energy says it will be able to produce 1 million gallons of algae-based biodiesel and jet fuel per year by next year and a billion gallons per year by 2025.

Biodiesel Turns Sesame Street Green

Sunny days … and biodiesel … will be sweeping the clouds … and the smog … away as the studio that produces Sesame Street will switch to the green fuel for heat.

The New York Daily News reports Kaufman Astoria Studios just became the greenest studio in town as it switches from traditional heating oil to “Greenheat,” a new blend of petroleum and biodiesel produced by a Brooklyn-based company:

The deal with METRO will provide the Astoria facility – the city’s oldest functioning movie studio – with 80,000 gallons of the new fuel a year, making it the largest commercial user of Greenheat in the city.

“Anytime you can do something and not damage your budget dramatically and be able to burn a cleaner fuel…why wouldn’t I?” said Hal Rosenbluth, president of Kaufman Astoria Studios.

METRO President Gene Pullo said commercial customers would normally use a grade of fuel with a higher sulfur content, which means more pollution. But over the past few months, these customers have expressed a greater interest to go green with their heating fuel.

“We recognized that there would be a greater demand for sustainable fuels,” said Pullo, 56, whose grandmother started METRO in 1942.

The studio will use a 5 percent biodiesel blend made from used cooking oil from restaurants, soybean and canola oils, and algae.

Lambright Joins Algae-Biofuel Maker Sapphire

The former head of the U.S. Export-Import Bank and Chief Investment Officer of the U.S. Treasury Department’s Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) is bringing his copious financial knowledge to algae-biofuels producer Sapphire Energy.

This company press release says James Lambright will also head Sapphire’s international expansion efforts:

A respected leader in the private and public financial sectors, Lambright rounds out an already impressive leadership team, which, since 2008, has focused its efforts on producing a scalable, renewable, low carbon liquid transportation fuel from algae, sunlight and CO2.

In this newly created role, Lambright will expand Sapphire’s presence in international markets where, just like America, complex energy needs dominate the agenda.

“No matter the issue – climate change, national energy security, or job creation – Sapphire Energy is poised with a solution – Green Crude,” says Jason Pyle, CEO of Sapphire Energy. “We have unequaled expertise in science, energy, and transportation. And now with Jim on board, we’ve added a depth of international markets and finance experience unmatched in our industry. That, plus the recent federal funding award and our healthy independent investment funds, positions Sapphire well down the path to make Green Crude commercial-ready.”

Lambright adds that he is excited to join Sapphire Energy, and it is the perfect place to help address the most complex challenges facing economies around the world: energy security and the environment.